Plum Voice - ContactCenterWorld.com Blog Page 4
It doesn’t take a genius to know that security is critical to successful business operations. Recently we looked at different authentication methods and how to use them. Naturally, as a company that deals in voice communications, it makes sense to highlight the benefits of voice biometrics as a security option.
How It Works
There are two elements to voice biometrics: registration and authentication.
Registration entails talking to the voice biometric engine long enough so that it can create a voice print for an individual.
One method for creating a voice print is to use a random number case approach. In this use case, the voice bio engine prompts the user to recite a string of random numbers. An IVR captures this audio and sends it to the engine. If there is a successful match, the system then moves to another random string of numbers. This process is repeated until the voice biometrics engine determines that it has enough samples to create a voice print. Typically, this is in the range of 4–6 audio samples.
Authentication is even simpler. During subsequent calls to the same company, the caller’s voice is verified against the voice print already in the system. Registration only needs to be done once, making the authentication process a fast and efficient security measure once it’s set up.
A Robust API
At Plum, we’ve created our own REST API (or shim layer) specifically for voice biometrics. Our developers have done the hard work of evaluating numerous voice bio engines. Only the engines that meet our high standards and internal testing made the final cut into the API. Our developers continue to assess different voice bio vendors in order to offer the best combination of reliability and ease of use through a single API.
Normalizing multiple voice bio engines in an API allows us to offer increased flexibility without a corresponding increase in development complexity. The API brings the most common commands to the forefront, and pushes everything else to the background to make integration smoother.
At the heart of our voice biometrics API are the commands to manage user creation and validation, to initiate voice print enrollment for both new and existing users, and to authenticate users. The end result streamlines the creation and authentication of voice prints through an interactive voice response application.
Integrate Voice Biometrics into Applications
Lauding the benefits of voice biometrics and multi-factor security authentication is all well and good, but if these additional features aren’t cost effective or are difficult to implement the ROI drops. Plum makes voice biometric authentication easy to implement into voice communications, reducing the number of hours that developers need to spend on it. This makes its security benefits even more attractive because it provides a strong layer of security as a standalone or as part of a multi-factor authentication process.
Publish Date: December 2, 2015 5:00 AM
Je ponce, donc je suis.
Cogito egro sum.
I think, therefore I am.
Regardless of the tongue, this bit of philosophical thought is one that virtually everyone has heard. What does an esoteric question like this have to do with cybersecurity? One thing that Descartes exposes in his famous declaration is a relationship. One does not exist without the other. This interdependency is something that carries over into cybersecurity.
There are three different approaches to authentication that relate to something you know, something you have, or something you are. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The key (excuse the pun) is to strike the right balance between authentication methods.
What You Know
Knowledge-based authentication (KBA) is the most common form of security measure. This typically consists of a user name and password at the most basic level. Additional questions often supplement this basic data, too. These are supposed to be things that you would know but others wouldn’t, things like your mother’s maiden name, your high school mascot, and the street you lived on as a child.
A complete stranger wouldn’t know the answer to any of those questions off the top of their head. However, the utility and security of KBAs seems to have an inverse relationship with the amount of data available on the internet. The more data that becomes available, the less secure KBAs are.
Thanks to social media, aggregated consumer information databases, and a host of other services that live in the cloud (think about something like Ancestory.com) finding out basic details about virtually anyone is a few keystrokes away. Even the most secure database, with 256-bit encryption can’t do anything about a malicious user who correctly guesses another person’s credentials.
Relying solely on KBA security is like putting a bowl of candy on your front porch for Halloween with a sign that says “Take 1,” and hoping everyone does so. Sure, most kids will abide your request, but sure enough some high schooler will come along, dump the entire thing in their pillow case, and be on to the next house.
What You Have
The thinking behind this type of authentication is that you have a physical item that serves to verify your identity. This can take many forms, like a key fob or a mobile phone, but the critical part is that it is an item that is unique to a specific individual.
Items that possess USB, RFID, or Bluetooth connectivity can generate dynamic keys that a user needs to enter, in addition to login credentials, in order to gain access to information. Pairing this type of authentication with another type of authentication (e.g. KBA or biometric) is known as two-factor authentication because there are two different measures that must be met before granting access. Some companies issue key fobs of this sort to employees, but doing so can be an expensive enterprise when it comes to managing and tracking all of the devices and users.
The ubiquity of mobile phones has made this a bit easier, especially as companies accede to BYOD practices. Instead of relying on a key fob that stores cryptographic information, it is possible to send a message to the smart phone registered to that user, who then has to enter a confirmation code before proceeding.
No matter what type of device is used for authentication, there remains the possibility of loss or theft of the device. This is another drawback of relying on a physical token for authentication purposes.
What You Are
Perhaps the most unique differentiator on an individual level is biology. No one has the same fingerprints, voice, or eyes, and all three of these anatomical features can be used for biometric authentication. Not only does biological uniqueness make biometric authentication more secure, but there is no need to memorize credentials and the likelihood of losing a piece of your body is much lower than a key fob.
Just like technological advances device-based authentication easier with mobile phones, it has also made biometric authentication more accurate and reliable. What would we do without technology?
If biometric data is stolen it is much more difficult for thieves to actually use this data. It’s not like in the movies where the bad guy cuts of a hand and puts it on the scanner, or makes a fake contact lens to fool the eye scanner. The sensors that power these types of interfaces are designed to detect fakes. Even voice biometrics software, which can be easily deployed over the phone, can detect impersonators, recordings, or synthetic voices.
Which To Choose?
With three distinct approaches to security and authentication, which method should companies choose? While resources undoubtedly contribute to this type of decision, most companies already employ KBA. It’s what people know and what they’re accustomed to. This may seem adequate, even with additional KBA security questions to serve as back up, and this presentation of security and trust may be enough for some. Limiting security to KBAs is a paper tiger when it comes to trust though; it’s the mere presentation of trust, not necessarily the actualization of it.
However, there’s a difference between walking the walk and talking the talk. To really earn user trust when it comes to security employ two-, or multi-factor authentication. The latter could include multiple forms of biometric authentication in addition to KBA or object-based security measures. This augments the KBAs that already exist with a combination of what you have or what you are. The more types of authentication required, the more secure the system is.
How do you know when it makes sense to make the move to two-factor authentication though, both as a company or as a user? Start with any entity that deals with medical or financial data. These data are the most frequently targeted and lucrative, and, therefore, should be high on the list of things to protect. This data contains your most personal and private information and has the potential to cause the greatest amount of damage in the wrong hands.
Next look at social media and other large data aggregators. Remember these are the sources that criminals mine to subvert your KBA credentials. Setting up two-factor authentication is a good idea here as well. The same goes for many cloud service providers. Businesses should also scrutinize the security practices of their associates and vendors. Holding others to the same high standards for security is the equivalent of a rising tide lifting all boats.
There is no panacea to questions of security. But one thing is quite clear; KBA alone doesn’t do the trick any more, and two-factor authentication (if not multi-) provides a much more proactively secure IT environment. To return to Descartes, thinking alone isn’t enough; companies need to find balance to construct a relationship between all three authentication variants.
Publish Date: November 20, 2015 5:00 AM
The Buyer’s Journey
In marketing there is a lot of talk about the “buyer’s journey.” This is a not-so-fancy way to describe the process by which a person discovers and purchases a product or service. So if we’re talking about buying a car, the journey isn’t the picture on Instagram of someone standing next to their new car, dangling their keys with a giant grin on their face. The journey includes everything from online research, to test drives, to financing options, and more.
When it comes to car buying, it’s possible to uncover how a customer got from point A to point B. It may take a bit of leg work, but it can be done. Now, obtaining feedback about each stage of the process can be a challenge as well, but there are plenty of tools to assist marketers and companies with that sort of thing.
These patterns and behaviors exist regardless of the industry under the microscope. It’s up to each individual company to make them work to its benefit.
The Limits of a Snapshot
Take hospitals for example. There is a nation-wide survey that patients complete to evaluate their satisfaction with the care they received following a stint in the hospital called the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). To up the ante, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have started to tie HCAHPS scores to reimbursement rates. Facilities that don’t fare well in relation to patient satisfaction can lose millions of dollars in government funding.
The point here isn’t to make a value judgment on HCAHPS, certainly it has a role to play and that’s fine. But from the standpoint of a healthcare provider it’s worth pointing out that the HCAHPS survey is a snapshot of the end result. This is equivalent to using a post-call survey, and nothing else, to gauge and manage customer experience. Typically, there are a battery of other appointments, tests, and interactions that precede a hospitalization that all influence the way a patient perceives their care.
The survey asks patients to rank things like doctor and nurse communication, pain management, and discharge instructions. These things don’t exist in a vacuum though; context is important. If someone goes into the hospital for knee surgery they’re going to compare the care associated with that procedure with all the appointments leading up to it. That’s the baseline, and there’s nothing wrong with this type of contextualization either. It’s natural and almost impossible to prevent.
This contextualization phenomenon is by no means limited to the healthcare industry. To make matters more complicated, customers don’t just consider a specific purchase in light of the research that led up to it. Yes, customers weigh the entire buyer’s journey, from discovery through purchase. But this is just a single component of out of several used to determine quality of service. Customers are also, in fact, comparing apples and oranges.
Companies in unrelated industries still bear in the mind of customers. Therefore, a car dealership or a hospital has to contend with expectations engendered by Target, USAA, or Comcast. Some may be easier to top than others, but essentially what results is a continuum between good and bad. In essence, consumers walk around with the equivalent of a personal Temkin Customer Service Rating in their head.
Keeping tabs on other companies and how they stack up in relation to customer satisfaction amongst one’s target market can help determine where on the continuum they fall and how to move in the correct direction.
Getting back to our healthcare example, one could argue that HCAHPS results both reflect the care provided at a specific hospital and the cumulative experience of the healthcare interactions that led up to that hospital stay.
What would be useful for healthcare providers is not just relying on that end-of-the-line snapshot, but periodic snapshots throughout the entire patient’s journey. This allows providers to diagnose the cause and not just the symptoms of customer experience, and to take corrective action in the appropriate places. Think of it like a movie or an animated gif, something that includes movement and direction rather than a static photo.
The recent push to increase the use of electronic medical records stands as an area where healthcare providers can tap into patient data and begin to fill in the rest of the picture with pre- and post-hospitalization information. Every interaction is documented and easily accessible. This intrinsic inter-connectivity should make connecting the dots relatively easy.
Not only would this allow healthcare providers to uncover a more comprehensive view of the patient’s journey, and reveal points for soliciting additional feedback along the way, but partnering with insurers would allow facilities to control for a wide range of variables, such as cost, practice, doctor, medical specialty, insurance type, duration of care, number of interactions, and many more.
Thanks to electronic medical records the healthcare industry has a built-in advantage when it comes to understanding the patient’s journey. The sooner that providers can tap into that information, the sooner they will be able to reap the benefits of improved patient satisfaction.
Get the Whole Picture
Regardless of industry, the salient point here is that customer experience is not a fixed point on the map, something that one can easily point out after a quick glance. Any mapmaker will tell you that a map is made up of points, lines, and polygons. To consider only of these is to navigate without a full complement of information.
The same goes for gauging customer experience. Monitoring the end-of-the-line snapshot will tell companies about their successes, but there are many more people who took an alternative route on the buyer’s journey, and there is important information to be gleaned from abandonments, too.
Understanding where buyers end their journey begs the question of why they abandoned in that place. This renewed focus enables companies to refine their customer offerings along the entire journey and, over time, to create a fine-tuned customer experience from awareness through purchase, and after.
Depending on the questions being asked surveys, phone calls, and messaging are all great options for soliciting information about various aspects of the customer’s journey.
Publish Date: November 10, 2015 5:00 AM
It seems that nary a week goes by without a headline running rampant on the internet and in print detailing yet another healthcare entity that experienced a data breach. The industry as a whole is twice as likely to experience a data breach, and already sees 3.4 times more security episodes than other industries. As we evolve, globally, into a society that increasingly relies on digital technology, keeping all those precious ones and zeroes secure becomes an important task.
It used to be that identity thieves targeted your bank accounts and credit cards. All you had to do was simply not reply to that email from a foreign prince, right? Even if your credit cards are compromised it is easy enough to get a new card. Yes, it’s a pain in the rear to go through the rigmarole, but the point being that the long-term impact of “old school” identity theft is limited in today’s world. Once the alarms are sounded and flags raised about potential fraud that specific account ceases its duress rather quickly. Of course, it used to be much more difficult to identify and correct, much like medical fraud at present.
A new type of identity theft
The impermanence of financial data is one reason that hackers have turned their attention to patient health data. While you can trade in an old credit card for a shiny new one, the same isn’t possible with a medical diagnosis. The ne’er-do-wells who purchase and use stolen patient data typically leverage it to acquire prescription medications or even someone else’s insurance for themselves. This could be a recipe for disaster for the victim.
As if that wasn’t bad enough, medical records often include additional private information, such as social security number, home address, relatives, place of employment, and financial data. We’re basically looking at a one-stop shop for all of someone’s most critical information. A single record can be sold on the black market for $50 or more, which makes recent data breaches that include millions of records very lucrative for hackers.
IT security matters in healthcare
Making matters even worse, the IT infrastructure of many healthcare providers and insurers leaves much to be desired vis-à-vis what is available. This is a major reason why the U.S. Government allocated $17B for the healthcare industry in 2009 as part of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA).
Part and parcel to this was an emphasis on electronic medical records, which forced many facilities to update their hardware. However, this has yet to penetrate the entire industry and places remain that rely on outdated, and therefore more vulnerable, legacy systems.
Even companies with up-to-date infrastructure are at risk though. Six years after the ARRA set the wheels of upgrades in motion, the healthcare industry continues to lag behind other industries in terms of internal software security and practices. If a breach does occur, it may not be automatically detected. In fact, it could take months or years to recognize that a breach occurred and what was taken.
Employees function as an important variable in the data breach equation. Malicious conduct certainly occurs, but more common is simple negligence, often unintentional, that leads to breaches. This could be from stolen devices or computers, or weak passwords.
A recent study found that in 2014, the healthcare industry accounted for 42% of major data breaches in the U.S. Given the value of this type of data on the black market, those numbers are not likely to go down anytime soon.
A disturbing trend
A quick look at the Department of Health & Human Services HIPAA enforcement data shows almost a constant increase in the number of reported HIPAA related incidents, violations, and resolutions. With figures extending back as far as 2003, there were only two calendar years in the period where the total number of incidents declined from the previous year.
It’s not a stretch to think of medical records that get into the wrong hands as Pandora’s Box; once opened it’s impossible to get everything back in the box as it was previously. Tracking what happens to patient medical records after a breach is another challenge, and adds a layer of complexity to the entire situation. Companies need to practice constant vigilance in anticipating threats and securing their patient data.
Hope for the future
All of this seems pretty grim, right? Fortunately, it is possible to be proactive in the war against hackers. This means upgrading IT infrastructure and procedures, like password complexity, to conform to current security best practices, and limiting partnerships to external vendors that are HIPAA compliant. For example, at Plum Voice we take data security seriously and our DEV platform underwent rigorous audits to achieve HIPAA compliance.
Another useful practice is employee training about the impact of data breaches on the healthcare industry to reinforce those policies. Pretty much everything requires a password these days so if you’re going to force employees to change theirs at regular intervals it’s best to make sure they understand why.
Publish Date: November 4, 2015 5:00 AM
Needlessly looking for a reason to worry?
With the holiday season on the crest of an approaching wave many companies that already do the majority of their customer service over the phone will likely see their call volume swell even higher. Likewise, even companies that favor service options using other communications channels will see spikes to their call volume due to the sheer number of customer interactions that precede or follow a sale. Clogged phone lines mean busy signals or dropped calls, both of which are bad for business.
Considering this it makes sense for companies to think about their call infrastructure and to ensure that they have the necessary capacity to handle call increases that could be double or even orders of magnitude higher than normal.
However, using the right telephony provider makes worrying about call spikes a waste of time and energy.
A model for worry-free service
Here at Plum Voice, we take great pains to collect data and model trends pertaining to call spikes. We use the resulting analysis to fortify our infrastructure, making call spikes a non-issue for our clients.
Creating a model is easy for us because we have an abundance of call data. That’s what happens when you’ve been doing this sort of thing for over a decade! When going through all that data we aim to answer some specific questions.
First, we want to know what the busiest hour of the year is for each and every client we serve. To determine this, we look at peak utilization for every day of the year and then apply some statistical models. Once completed, this gives us an upper threshold for every customer’s call volume.
This process is repeated internally for our own infrastructure. When we ask “what is the busiest hour of the year for our infrastructure?” we’re not thinking about a particular client; we’re looking at our entire network. There are 8,760 hours in a year and after aggregating the usage of all of our clients, we identify the single hour over the span of an entire year with the highest call volume. The load borne by our network during this hour is our call spike.
How Plum stacks up
After going through the analysis and modeling process, Plum discovered the following:
- Individual customers experience spikes that are quadruple their average daily peak hour utilization
- Our infrastructure experiences spikes that are double the average daily peak hour utilization
- Individual customer spikes are never large enough to push our infrastructure-wide utilization beyond 2x
Our infrastructure is designed to always have double the redundant port capacity available based on what we see by way of average utilization. With three domestic data centers, we never allow our steady-state daily traffic to exceed 33% of our installed ports. Once the utilization of our entire infrastructure begins to creep toward 33% usage on a regular basis (not accounting for any planned or predicted traffic increases from specific customers) we begin adding circuits from our carriers.
In the simplest terms, we always have enough capacity to handle whatever call spikes any of our customers experiences.
Know your vendor
Planning ahead and choosing a telephony vendor with sufficient call capacity that is proactive with maintaining that level of service, whether growth occurs on the client or the vendor side, is key. With Plum, for example, finding a reliable, scalable system supported by the experts who created it isn’t as hard as it may seem; it’s what we do.
Here are four things to know, or ask about your telephony vendor:
- The number of data centers they operate
- The level of redundancy built into those data centers
- Their average daily port usage and what proportion of total redundant capacity that comprises
- If they have a model for predicting spikes and usage that is tied to proactive system upgrades
Once you know how your vendor handles them, you won’t have to worry about call spikes again.
Publish Date: October 28, 2015 5:00 AM
All about that base
Most people have spent time building with Legos at one point in their lives. The great thing about Legos is that you can build virtually anything you can imagine with those little interlocking bricks.
What makes Lego creations even better? When you have a base plate to go along with all those bricks. The addition of a base plate adds an incalculable degree of stability to your creations, setting the stage for architectural greatness. Whether that is a replica of the Eiffel Tower, a life-sized Santa Clause, or a simple tower that you want to reach from the floor to the ceiling, the possibilities are endless.
What do Legos have to do with technology, you may ask? The point here is that having a solid foundation is the key to building awesome stuff. What you build on that foundation is only limited by what you can imagine.
In this way a Communications Platform as a Service (CPaaS) is like the combination of Lego bricks, in this analogy the programming language and APIs, and a base plate, the platform that runs the code. Inevitably, someone will ask what a CPaaS does, but there is no single function that it’s designed to do. It’s a blank slate upon which virtually anything can be built. One thing is for certain, a CPaaS can do a lot more than just traditional IVR.
Here are a few examples—some hypothetical, others already in existence—that barely scratch the surface of what is possible.
Car 54, where are you?
Knowing where things are, geographically speaking, is helpful on a whole number of levels. When it comes to the intersection of communications and geography there are plenty of possibilities to build something really cool.
For example, integrating a CPaaS with other systems could result in a location-based notification system. Linking communications technology with a Geographic Information System (GIS) could have many different applications. For instance, a trucking company may have concerns about their on-time performance if drivers don’t follow their assigned routes or run into major delays.
The GIS and other backend systems can be used to automatically determine a threshold for how far drivers can deviate from their route, or the amount of time it should take to make a delivery. Once those system determines that a truck is beyond the threshold established for its route or is delayed by a certain amount of time, it can trigger the CPaaS to call the company so that they can find out what caused the detour or delay.
A custom audio tour
One very interesting use of audio communications we’ve seen is Museum411’s custom audio tour. An innovator with their application, the company turns content from museums into a script that visitors can access via their mobile phones. The museum assigns a code to certain displays and visitors then call a number while in the museum, enter the code, and hear pre-recorded interviews with artists and curators about a piece or an exhibit. Find out more about how the application works and the benefits Museum411 experienced here.
Put your CRM to use
The possibilities for CRM integration are almost endless. Companies that do most of their sales over the phone can connect their CRM database(s) to the CPaaS so when customers place an order they can present them with a number of post-transaction options, like the survey mentioned above, or the choice of having a receipt emailed to the address on file.
The CPaaS can take that request and either send a basic email directly. Another, more robust and customer-friendly route, however, would be to have the application trigger an action instructing the company’s email workflow to generate the appropriate invoice. Once the request is received, the business logic of constructing an email commences. This may involve pulling in personalized customer data from their CRM database, building an email invoice according to the company’s brand specifications, and sending it to the email address on file. All of this can be done at the point of sale without any extra actions taken by the customer.
On a scale from 1 to 5…
Receiving feedback from customers can make a huge impact on customer service and satisfaction, but a generic survey may not be sufficient. Integrating a communications application with a customer CRM allows for personalized messaging that not only increases the likelihood that a customer will respond, but also provides more granular feedback.
Something like this could be as simple as asking a customer to rate their most recent interaction with a company, or delving deeper into customer data and asking about specific products or services. If there are multiple locations this feedback can be tied to specific stores or offices to provide accurate data.
Your very own concierge
If we subscribe to the argument from Tom Petty that “the waiting is the hardest part,” then making life easier on others, especially customers, deserves some consideration. Sure, Siri or Cortana can remind you about your doctor’s appointment, but do they know when your prescription is ready at the pharmacy? How about the current status of a work order?
Because these types of tasks require access to a company’s specific data it’s up to the company to build apps for this purpose. But think of how nice it is to receive a phone call or a text message stating that your Rx is ready instead of having to wait at the pharmacy.
Similarly, companies and customers alike can benefit from this technology to determine the status of things like work orders, support tickets, and other multi-step processes. Knowing whether your work order, for example, is pending, in progress, or complete can be an enormous advantage when trying to prioritize tasks.
The Files are IN the computer
Considering how much trouble Derek Zoolander and Hansel had with figuring out how computers work, how do you think they’d fare with smart phone apps? I think they’d be ok because the visual and intuitive nature of most mobile apps makes them relatively easy-to-use.
As mobile devices become people’s preferred medium of communication, companies with mobile apps can leverage a CPaaS to build communications features directly into their apps that take advantage of these preferences.
Most major banks have mobile apps and offer a number of different features and services. If someone wants to inquire about obtaining a car loan one option is to copy (or write down) the phone number, exit the app, open the phone app, paste or key in the number, and make the call. Or, companies can make things easier on customers and use the features and APIs of a CPaaS to integrate voice calling directly into the app, reducing a five-step process to a single action.
Make everything awesome
These are just a few possible applications you can build on a CPaaS. For more ideas check out our case studies to see how others have taken advantage of CPaaS technology. There is a little bit of something for everyone given that a wide range of industries and applications are listed there.
With such a powerful platform it’s no stretch to transform into the communications equivalent of a Lego Master Builder, but whether that’s in the style of Vitruvius, Wyldstyle, or Emmet is up to you and the application you want to create.
Publish Date: October 23, 2015 5:00 AM
Going Home Isn’t The End
When a patient leaves the hospital the last thing they want to do is go back. Yet, re-admission happens all of the time. Studies show that one of the most common reasons for this is insufficient communication between healthcare providers and patients.
In a pressure-cooker work environment like a hospital it’s almost understandable for doctors to focus less on their bedside manner and more on working through their case load. Almost.
Honestly though, it’s not fair to lay the blame for the lack of communication solely at the feed of physicians. There are systemic inefficiencies that lead to communications breakdowns between doctors and patients as well.
Re-admission rates are important metrics for hospitals, and becoming even more so, because it is one of several factors tied to Medicare reimbursements. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) is a standardized survey given to patients following hospitalization. One of the contributing factors to a facility’s score is re-admission rate. Hospitals that don’t earn satisfactory HCAHPS scores could be subject to a 1.5–2% reduction in Medicare reimbursements. This may not sound like a significant number, but it can easily equal millions of dollars for a single facility.
So if communication between providers and patients affects re-admission rates, where are the communications stumbling blocks in this dynamic?
Help is Just a Call Away
“Don’t bring me problems, bring me solutions,” said every manager ever.
Ok, maybe that’s a bit of a stretch, but you have to admit that it makes sense. For someone dealing with multiple, constantly moving parts, sweating the details isn’t a very effective use of time.
Whether it’s a mobile or a landline, the telephone is one of the most ubiquitous communications tools in existence. Healthcare providers looking to maximize the capabilities of communication technology should definitely plan to incorporate phone-based communication in some capacity.
In the spirit of the adage above, here are some voice-enabled solutions to common communications problems that can contribute to hospital re-admission.
1. Follow-Up Care/Instructions
Problem: Going home is probably the best part of any hospitalization. But just because you get to go home doesn’t mean that you’re out of the woods yet. Typically, there is a laundry list of things that need to be done at home to ensure progress on the road to recovery.
This can include a medication regiment, physical or occupational therapy exercises, or follow-up appointments with your general practitioner. Depending on the course of treatment, follow-up care can be complicated. Failure on the part of both healthcare professionals to effectively communicate this and patients to fully understand what’s required can lead to re-admission.
Solution: There are a couple of different ways to utilize automated care instructions. The first thing to do is to determine which post-care instructions are the most common. The patients that require that information could then take advantage of a voice application containing those instructions. The system could either make outbound calls to discharged patients or allow patients to call in whenever they needed a refresher.
Outbound calls could be automatically linked to a patient’s medical record so that the system pulls the correct set of instructions. Similarly, with inbound calls a patient would only have to verify their identity to receive their follow-up care information. Any system tied into patient medical records needs to be HIPAA compliant so take extra care to ensure your solution fits the bill.
2. Medication Usage
Problem: The phrase ‘medication regimen’ in itself suggests a level of complexity above and beyond simply “take one pill, three times daily.” Although even that can be challenging for some. Whether it’s creating a new routine, even for a short period of time, or simply forgetting that there is medicine to take, some people have difficulty taking medication.
Solution: Whether it’s remembering to take or refill a prescription, failure to do so could have detrimental effects on a patient. Designing an application that can help patients with these tasks is totally feasible. It would be possible to call patients with a pre-recorded reminder to take their medication, or to send a text message that simply asks whether they took their medication. Using an application like this could also help keep track of when refills are needed.
It’s possible to build a custom application for these types of processes, or leverage a service like Pleio, which offers a similar solution.
3. Adherence to Treatment
Problem: Some aspects of treatment are easier to follow than others. Maybe taking a pill once a day is much easier for a patient than doing leg exercises. Understanding what treatments are effective and the context that enables a patient to adhere or abandon a prescribed treatment is helpful not only for a patient’s long-term prognosis, but also to improve treatment plans for others with the same or similar ailments. Without this type of information providers can’t make informed decisions going forward.
Solution: Post-hospitalization treatments are not limited to medications. Speech, physical, occupational, and other therapy departments may wish to track patient adherence to treatment plans. To ensure optimal progress a voice application can serve patients with reminders to perform exercises or to check to see if they did their exercises that day.
4. Missed Appointments
Problem: Missed appointments create a whole slew of problems for healthcare providers, and aren’t just related to hospital re-admission rates. Although, obviously, they can be a contributing factor there as well. A missed appointment is a bygone opportunity to adjust a patient’s care plan.
Certainly for medical researchers, the failure of test-subjects to show up can be extremely frustrating. And for the family health practice, missed appointments create headaches for doctors and staff alike.
Solution: Short of making house calls, the best way for healthcare professionals to understand how a patient is progressing is through a follow-up visit. Using a voice application to help schedule, re-schedule, verify, and remind patients about up-coming appointments can save both time and money for healthcare facilities that deal with a high volume of patients.
A voice application can even be used in tandem with self-service web portals and other technologies to ensure all communication channels are covered, and that reminders can be sent regardless of how the appointment was booked.
5. Patient Feedback
Problem: Medicine is such a complex profession that many patients are intimidated by doctors and don’t think or know that it’s ok to ask questions. They may not even know what questions to ask. With this as a baseline perspective in many cases it can be challenging to get useful patient feedback. If doctors don’t know what their patients think about their care, then how can they be expected to improve?
Solution: Hospitals that want more granular patient feedback than what is generated by the HCAHPS survey can easily reach out directly to patients with their own survey. Advanced survey technology can deliver the same survey through multiple channels, allowing providers to leverage voice in combination with SMS/MMS and the web, giving patients the convenience to respond via their preferred medium.
6. Health Status
Problem: Just because someone follows their treatment plan doesn’t mean it’s working. For some patients it would be helpful for doctors to monitor their progress daily. Are things progressing, regressing, or staying the same? Few, if any, physicians have the time for that kind of individualized attention, however. In this instance there’s a breakdown between the utility of information and the ability of both parties to communicate easily.
Solution: In the absence of daily appointments, the best way to get a status update from patients is to ask them. A voice application can easily solicit this information from patients. For instance, it could be designed to send a text message to a patient asking for a pain index on a scale of 1 to 5. That data can then be added to the patient’s medical record, making it easier to identify recovery trends.
This type of application would be very useful when used in conjunction with data about patient medication usage and adherence to other treatment regimens.
7. Linguistic/Cultural Differences
Problem: Linguistic or cultural differences can exacerbate any of the above problems even further. While it may seem that patients understand a doctor’s instructions while under the direct supervision of medical professionals, that may not continue to be the case at home without that oversight.
Solution: All this talk about voice applications is great, but what happens when a non-native English speaker tries to use one? Even if you don’t think you need multi-language support at the outset, it might be necessary to add later. Doing due diligence at the outset and opting for a platform that can support multiple languages and a vendor that has experience deploying multi-language voice solutions is the best course of action.
All of these examples illustrate a need for clear and effective communication between healthcare providers and patients. Taking the extra time to make sure patients understand and follow their post-hospital care plan can pay dividends, in terms of both patient well-being and the bottom line.
Because time is so limited, taking those precious seconds and investing them in automating this type of communication deserves some consideration. The ability to save time and improve communications simultaneously isn’t outside the realm of possibility with the right tools.
Automation can streamline many common communications issues that healthcare professionals face. At the same time, when deployed strategically these types of applications can also provide critical information for patients and physicians alike. Better patient outcomes go hand-in-hand with improved patient-facing communication.
Publish Date: October 13, 2015 5:00 AM
Recently I called my local hardware store with a question about a scheduled door installation. The phone menu had an option for the windows and doors department, but it was about the twelfth option on what one would consider the second “page” of the menu. The store created even more confusion when an employee answered the phone, saying “Millworks.” Millworks? What was that? I wanted windows and doors. Not only was getting the correct department difficult, but a lack of consistency between the terms used for phone menu and those used by employees in-store created even more confusion.
If anything thing this would be considered a mild annoyance, but the potential for outright frustration with an IVR certainly exists. It’s not difficult to visualize someone, hair mussed and face flushed with incensed ire, screaming at an uncooperative speech recognition application. Perhaps you don’t even need to try to conjure up a mental image. Some days you may just have to look in the mirror.
When customers call, a sure-fire way to get them frazzled is with a difficult-to-use interactive voice response (IVR) application. Putting in the time and effort to optimize and improve your IVR can drastically reduce customer frustration and improve both call containment rates and customer satisfaction.
Identify Bottlenecks and Weak Points
There is no shortage of potential bottlenecks and weaknesses in a call flow. Identifying these items is the first step to fixing them.
One example of a call flow problem is a high rate at which calls are transferred out of the IVR application to a live agent. Considering the cost difference between a live agent and an IVR handling a call, which is significant, companies want to keep the calls best served by automation contained within the application.
The best way to identify these weak points? Use data.
By tracking the selections that callers make when interacting with your IVR, you to see precisely where callers are exiting the application. If large percentage of callers transfer out of the IVR at the same place in the call flow that is a strong indication that something in that menu requires attention.
Call data can reveal a wide array of trends. What options do callers select most frequently? Where are callers transferring to? When do callers hang up? At what point does error handling kick in? These are some of the more common items to keep an eye on when looking to optimize your IVR.
Implement, Measure, Repeat
If you think back to high school science class, the scientific method says to form a hypothesis and then to test it. After using data to support or refine that nagging inkling that you had that something was awry with your phone system it’s time to put the solution to the test.
There may be a tendency to treat optimization like a Ron Popeil rotisserie oven–just set it and forget it. This perspective, however, assumes that business and customers alike are static. Because this isn’t the case it’s necessary to keep an eye on those same analytics going forward.
Rolling out a new product? Altering the breadth of customer support? More likely than not another area for improvement will rear its head in the wake of seemingly unrelated business decisions. So keep an eye on the data your IVR generates and continually optimize it.
Don’t Over Do It
Now this might seem antithetical to the previous statement, but don’t overdo optimization either. An incremental approach is best because it allows you to determine which variable accounted for a given result. Implementing an extensive list of changes in one fell swoop just muddies the waters. You never know, a high priority change could be a greater cure-all than anticipated, saving considerable time and resources in the future.
Along similar lines, tinkering with your IVR application too frequently has the potential to frustrate customers. Frequent callers are used to a certain menu structure and they’re not going to like it if that structure changes three times over the next three months.
Finding the balance between getting good data, optimizing the application, rolling out changes, and analyzing the results may take some time, but will be beneficial in the long-term. Remember, having fewer frustrated customers is a boon to your live agents, not to mention for those formerly-beleaguered-but-now-satisfied callers. Go ahead and ask them.
Optimization is a win-win across the board. To achieve the best results, use analytics custom-built for IVR applications, like VoiceTrends, which is baked into the Plum Dev platform, to optimize your customer’s IVR experience.
Publish Date: October 6, 2015 5:00 AM
It’s not cliché to say that telephony comprise some of the most complex systems that a business has to deal with. One of the reasons for this is that telephony isn’t just one single thing. It constitutes the actual technology, infrastructure, and practices tied to and enabling telecommunications.
Furthermore, the continued evolution of telephony from analog to digital introduced a whole new level of complexity to telephony.
In the analog days of old, phones connected directly to each other. As the number of telephones proliferated local exchanges were created to more easily connect local numbers. Pretty much everyone has seen an old TV show where a human operator processes phone calls by plugging patch cables into a giant switch board. These patch cables created a closed circuit that established a phone connection.
Copper wiring linked phones to these local exchanges and then even more copper wiring, known as a trunk line, connected the local exchanges to other national and international exchanges.
Before too long this network of interconnected devices became too complex for humans to manually control everything and circuit switching became automated. The modern public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the current manifestation of the circuit switched telephone system.
Even though there are digital elements in the PSTN that control switching, the transmission of audio across a direct connection along copper wires is why the system is still considered analog.
Since the 1990s, advances in digital telephony have made it more reliable and cost effective. The development of Voice of IP (VoIP) allows voice and data to travel on the same lines, which helps to reduce costs. Dynamic systems, like SIP trunking, which works in concert with VoIP, make VoIP even more powerful and reliable, offer companies substantial saving on their telephony expenditures.
At the same time because digital telephony is IP-based, integrating voice with other digital communications applications has exploded in recent years. Making telephony as powerful as its ever been.
The ability of computers and telephones to interact also made IVR technology much more robust. Nowadays, IVR can work like a web browser for your phone, accomplishing virtually any task one can think of that requires voice and data input or output.
Publish Date: October 1, 2015 5:00 AM
SIP trunking sounds like something one does on a vacation in warm climes with at least one fruity drink in hand. In actuality it’s more akin to those employees at the airport do who wave big light sticks at airplanes. (Their job title is actually Aircraft Marshall or Signaler.)
Before going too far, a roadmap should help shed some light on what’s covered below. Read on for answers to questions like: What are SIP and SIP trunking? How does SIP trunking differ from PSTN calling? What are the advantages of SIP trunking?
What is SIP?
Before discussing what SIP trunking, it’s necessary to flesh out what SIP is. SIP stands for Session Initiation Protocol. In essence, SIP is a method signaling and managing communications.
Every group of friends has that one person who coordinates everything and is a master at getting everyone together. SIP is like that person, but instead of dealing with people it deals with IP-based applications, most notably voice, video, chat, and other multimedia communications.
SIP works by sending packets of information between SIP-enabled devices. There are two types of packets – signal and media. The signal packets establish and end a connection between two devices, which then allows for the exchange of media packets.
Of course, communications are dependent on both parties knowing where the other one is and an ability to understand what’s being said. SIP dictates both of these things by keeping track of device IP addresses, and laying down the rules for which codecs are appropriate for different session types so that all devices involved can process the media properly.
What is SIP trunking?
Whereas plain old SIP is like the aircraft marshal working one-on-one with a pilot on the tarmac, introducing the PBX makes SIP trunking more like the air traffic controller in the tower pushing tin between multiple planes at the same time.
SIP trunking is a VoIP-based media streaming service offered by Internet Telephony Service Providers (ITSP) that provides voice and unified communications to companies with a SIP-enabled private branch exchange (PBX). It basically puts all of a company’s IP-based communications tools in the same toolbox and lets anyone with access to that toolbox use them with each other.
How does SIP trunking work?
Like many things in telephony, the basic concept is pretty easy to grasp, but the actual inner-workings of SIP trunking can be extremely complicated. Staying true to form, this space will cover basic SIP trunking functionality, but suffice it to say this just scratches the surface of what SIP is capable of doing.
The difference between yesterday…
Suppose a company has an office in Los Angeles and another location in Philadelphia. The two offices are connected by a Wide Area Network (WAN) for their IP needs. Each office also has a dedicated PBX for telephone calls that connects to the rest of the PSTN along a Primary Rate Interface (PRI) trunk.
If a customer calls the company’s 800-number it rings the LA office. But say all the lines in LA are busy. What happens to the call? Most likely it gets a busy signal or sits in a call queue until it’s picked up. Which one depends on how many PRI trunks the company leased for its LA office, as each trunk only has 23 channels, or in layman’s terms, is capable of handling 23 concurrent calls. Regardless, whether it’s a busy signal or waiting on hold neither option is ideal for the customer.
If the company needs more channels (i.e. concurrent calls) they need to lease additional PRI trunks, potentially a very costly operating expense. These lines connect directly to a specific PBX so if a call needs to be re-routed it’s up to a person to physically transfer the call.
In a SIP trunking world those PRI trunks are eliminated. Instead, the PSTN connects directly to a router with Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) capabilities that resides on the company’s WAN. As “multiprotocol” suggests, MPLS can handle a variety of different protocols, including SIP.
Also, remember that 23 concurrent call threshold a PRI trunk has? Well SIP trunking doesn’t abide by a fixed number of channels. Instead, the number of concurrent calls depends on available bandwidth. Using compression can make SIP trunking even more bandwidth efficient, too.
Now, replay that same call scenario with SIP trunking. The call moves from the PSTN directly to the company’s MPLS on its WAN network. Using SIP, the router sees that all of the lines in LA are down due to rolling blackouts, but finds an available one in Philadelphia and automatically re-directs the call there. The caller connects with someone right away, creating a better customer experience.
Benefits of SIP trunking
One of the most notable benefits to utilizing SIP trunking is that it typically corresponds to a sizable cost reduction. Eliminating the cost of leased PRI lines is much greater than paying for an uptick in bandwidth. Further, as SIP trunking service fees continue to decline, companies should sustain cost savings in the long-term. It’s not unheard of for a company to halve their telephony costs by switching to SIP trunking.
The bandwidth-to-available-channels relationship means that SIP trunking scales easily, unlike legacy systems. Also, given the fact that SIP trunking consolidates a company’s voice technology at the enterprise level, the need to allocate resources by location exits stage left too. This makes it easier to compensate for call spikes, whether anticipated or not.
As the example above also illustrates, SIP trunking has built in disaster relief capabilities because it can detect which lines are available throughout the entire network and dynamically route calls to available lines.
Because SIP trunking combines voice and data on the same lines and plays nice with unified communications, which typically includes voice, video, instant messaging, and even applications for web conferencing and real-time collaboration, companies can get a lot more use out of the technology than just cheaper phone calls.
The IP-based nature of SIP trunking makes collaboration across multiple locations or with mobile devices easier. This doesn’t have to be limited to two people either, with SIP and unified communications multiple parties in separate locations can talk, web conference, or share screens in real-time. This creates a more flexible, efficient workforce.
Publish Date: September 29, 2015 5:00 AM
It turns out there is more than one way to skin a cat.
There’s no need to call the SPCA. No one is actually skinning cats here.
Not too long ago there weren’t a whole lot of options for making phone calls. That has all changed today. If you’re wondering what Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephony is, how it differs from the public switched telephone network (PSTN), what pieces make VoIP work, and what some of the advantages of VoIP are then put your feet up and read on.
PSTN vs. VoIP
VoIP provides an alternative method for making phone calls than the PSTN. The crucial distinction between how these differing systems accomplish the task of transmitting information is in the type of switching employed.
The PSTN uses circuit-switching technology. In other words, the PSTN opens up a direct connection between two subscriber lines that allows the system to send and receive information from each party in real time. A new connection is established with every phone call made and is closed when the phone is hung up.
VoIP, however, uses packet-switching technology. The nitty gritty of how this process works is addressed below, but at a high level, the voice audio is digitized and broken up into little pieces called packets that are sent over the internet and follow the path(s) of least resistance to the other end. Once the packets reach their destination they are reassembled in the correct order and played back as audio.
What Is VoIP?
VoIP is a term that gets bandied about quite frequently, but such liberal use of the term has distorted its meaning. Like when you studied for the SAT and the verbal section focused on fine shades of difference between words, so too is the case with Internet Protocol Telephony (IPT).
Really, IPT is an umbrella term that includes both Internet telephony and VoIP. The second edition of Telecommunications Essentials by Lillian Goleniewski provides definitions for each of these:
- IPT, broadly speaking, is the transmission of voice, fax, and related services over packet-switched IP-based networks.
- Internet Telephony is a form of IPT where the principal transmission network is the public Internet.
- VoIP is another form of IPT in which the principal transmission network or networks are private, managed IP-based networks.
System Structure, or What Components Make up VoIP?
Going down the VoIP rabbit hole means that things can get complicated things quickly.
The VoIP network is actually modeled on the PSTN network, but several different pieces of hardware and software exist to make the packet-switching possible.
These constitute the actual handsets, or similar, used to make a phone call. Legacy phones can connect to a VoIP network with an adapter. Other calling options include an IP phones look like regular phones, but they connect to the network using an Ethernet jack rather than a telephone jack. Computers that have the right software and hardware accessories (microphone, speakers, soundcard, headset, etc.) can also be used to make VoIP phone calls.
“Gateways provide seamless interoperability between circuit-switching and packet-switching network domains.” In other words, the media gateway connects the IP network to the PSTN and allows those two networks to talk to each other. Gateways also handle IP signaling functions and support Local Exchange and Toll switches on the PSTN. On top of all that, gateways can handle a wide variety of traffic types: data, voice, fax, multi-media, etc.
The function of the softswitch is to “control the voice or data traffic path by signaling between media gateways that transport the traffic.” Softswitches use established protocols and specifications to ensure “that a call’s or connection’s underlying signaling information gets communicated between gateways.” This information includes things like caller ID, billing info, and other call triggers. Whereas a media gateway is an actual piece of hardware, a softswitch is software, and can be incorporated into a media gateway.
IP PBXs can do everything that traditional PBXs can do, and a whole lot more. An IP PBX allows companies to leverage its managed intranet for voice and data applications. These can run the gamut from conferencing, to unified messaging, to multimedia, to collaborative applications, and more. IP PBXs can be physical hardware or software, and, as a result, businesses can leverage hosted IP PBXs for their needs.
How does a VoIP call work?
Well that depends on whether the called party is on an analog phone or another IP device. There are many different VoIP providers that facilitate VoIP calls.
If you’re calling another IP device the call doesn’t need to connect to the PSTN. A caller dials the number and the call is passed from the device to a router. The router passes the call to the internet where it reaches one of the VoIP provider’s servers. From there the call gets passed along local internet lines on the other end to the recipient’s router and then to their IP device.
The process for calling an analog phone is exactly the same except with one altered step. After the call leaves provider’s servers, it goes through a media gateway that translates everything from digital to analog and passes the call to the local PSTN. The call is then carried along the local PSTN as an analog signal to the correct subscriber line.
VoIP has useful applications for everyone from individual subscribers to large enterprises. The future is bright for VoIP as the number of applications and its technological capabilities continue to increase. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has emerged as a technology that complements VoIP quite well. Stay tuned for more information on SIP.
Are VoIP calls free?
Now that you know, in broad strokes, how VoIP works, it’s worth re-visiting the distinction between VoIP and Internet telephony. The conflation of these two types of IPT has created a belief that VoIP is free. Well that couldn’t be further from the truth.
Remember, VoIP relies on private, managed networks. This means that a company leases internet lines directly from a bandwidth provider, which results in better quality of service (Note: an intranet is another type of private network). There are plenty of different VoIP companies, but one that many people are likely familiar with is Vonage. While these providers may offer less expensive options than a traditional phone company, their services certainly aren’t free.
On the other hand, internet telephony operates over the public internet. This is the province of “over-the-top” (OTT) services like Skype, Google Voice, and Apple’s Facetime. OTT refers to any service that is delivered using your Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) network, but isn’t provided directly by the ISP. For example, On-Demand movies that you access through your cable box are not OTT, but Netflix and Skype are.
You may not pay directly to make calls with Skype or Facetime, but because those services work on the public internet they are more susceptible to lag, dropouts, and other errors.
Why does VoIP cost less?
The short explanation is because VoIP uses less data.
By way of comparison, a circuit-switched opens a direct connection between two lines and eats up data for the entire duration of a call. Packet-switching doesn’t need a direct connection, instead utilizing any number of routes to deliver the call information. When someone speaks, data is sent, but periods of silence don’t generate data like they do on the PSTN.
Think of this this way. Back in the day, before playlists, iTunes, and Spotify, folks recorded songs off the radio onto cassette tapes. If you had a sixty-minute tape you could just press record and let the tape run in the hope that the song you wanted to hear came on in that thirty-minute window (remember there’s a Side A and a Side B), but this could waste a lot of tape.
The other option was to wait until the song came on and scramble to hit the record button in time. This way you only got the song you wanted and had room to record many more songs too.
VoIP works like option two, except that you don’t have to worry about the rush to hit record.
There are plenty of advantages that go hand-in-hand with VoIP. Efficiency and cost savings are attractive in their own right. The ability to develop unified communications solutions that incorporate telephony also makes VoIP an extremely useful technology. For example, a company can integrate internet-dependent services, including voice, fax, email, instant messaging, and other real-time or data services. Having this application flexibility is a major benefit of VoIP.
Call quality persists as one area where VoIP lags behind the PSTN. The PSTN set the standard for call quality, and doesn’t suffer from latency issues because the connection between the lines is constant. In other words, everything happens in real time.
With VoIP data is sent in bursts. Only when someone talks and audio gets packetized does it get passed between devices. This means that there is greater potential for latency or dropouts if packets get lost or if there are hiccups in the re-assembly process.
Publish Date: September 15, 2015 5:00 AM
“A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away…”
Oh wait, that’s not the case at all. It was Alexander Graham Bell, in the U.S., with a patent. While that may read more like winning recipe to the game Clue, it’s actually what happened in 1876 with Bell’s invention of the telephone. If you’ve ever wondered what the public switched telephone network (PSTN) is and how it works, then you’ve found the post you’re looking for.
Over the better part of the ensuing century following Bell’s patent the PSTN network evolved into a communications behemoth, where by the 1970s AT&T owned and operated virtually the entire Bell system spanning the U.S. and Canada. What follows details primarily the United States PSTN, however, the pieces and functions of the components are largely the same in other countries, although the actual configurations may vary.
Good ole Ma Bell’s monopoly on the PSTN in North America eventually led to a lawsuit from the U.S. government. This resulted in the breakup of the Bell network in 1984 into regional corporations in an effort to increase competition for long distance service.
As carriers entered the picture, they each carved out pieces of the PSTN pie for themselves. When thinking about how telephone technology works today it’s important to remember that significant variances exist between the capabilities and infrastructure of different carriers.
So what exactly is the PSTN?
Originally the PSTN was “designed to support only continuous, real-time voice communications.” The system didn’t set out to provide the backbone for our modern communications infrastructure. In fact, it was designed for an average call duration of three minutes or less, relying on limited bandwidth–a mere 64 Kbps over a twister-copper-pair wire. This analog system is commonly referred to as Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS).
Although there have been a lot of upgrades to bring the components of the PSTN into the digital realm, the most common access method for landline telephones remains this analog, copper wire connection. The cost for telco operators of replacing “the last mile” of copper wire with fiber optic cable or other higher bandwidth media is prohibitive, especially with the progress that has been made in wireless technology in recent years.
The decline of the landline has made headlines in recent years as people forego their home phones for mobile smartphones. In 2008, the number of homes without a landline stood at around 25% in the United States, but that number increased to 40% by 2014. That percentage is even higher among those living in urban areas or in their late 20s.
Voice communications continue to rely heavily on the PSTN.
On the surface, the drop in landlines may suggest a corresponding decline in the relevance of the PSTN. Actually, the opposite it true. Sure, the analog “last mile” component isn’t an issue with mobile phones, but aside from the method used to connect to PSTN exchanges, everything else about how calls are processed and routed remain the same. Mobile phones can’t function without the PSTN.
The modern PSTN still has plenty of copper wire in it, but it also includes fiber optic cables, cellular networks, communication satellites, and undersea cables. These transmission media have much more bandwidth available and can accommodate much more than just voice communications. Video, for example, is one type of media that requires much more bandwidth than the 64Kbps that twisted-pair connections provide. Unless, of course, you’re a big fan of waiting for Netflix to buffer.
So how does the PSTN work? Someone picks up the phone, dials, and…
The circuit-switched PSTN opens up a continuous connection between two phones, that begins with a dial tone and ends when the phone is hung up.
To start you can have an individual subscriber, or a group of subscribers, like a business that requires multiple access lines. Individual subscribers connect directly to the local exchange, while businesses often use a private branch exchange (PBX) to manager all their connections. So the call starts with the actual phone and either connects directly to the Local Exchange or to the PBX and then to the Local Exchange, if the call comes from a business with multiple lines.
From the local exchange network, depending on where the call is going, it is pushed to international carriers, interexchange carriers, cellular providers, or internet service providers.
The number of layers of technology a call passes through varies depending on where the call is destined. This is one of the reasons that telephony can be so confusing, the sheer number of variables involved in making a “simple” phone call.
Taking a step back and really looking at the pieces that comprise the PSTN puzzle makes it abundantly clear just how far from “simple” telephony is.
The PSTN is comprised of a complex web of interconnection nodes and transmissions links. Different infrastructures exist at the local, regional, and national levels, but regardless of how each section is configured the pieces function in the same way. There are four different types of nodes: customer premises equipment (CPE), transmission, service, and switching. Transmission links constitute the physical wires or fiber, as may be the case nowadays, that interconnect the various nodes.
The CPE node is the equipment on site where the call originates. That could be an individual subscriber line or a PBX.
The transmission node consists of the equipment and media that carry information between nodes of a network. This can include things like amplifiers, repeaters, multiplexers, digital cross-connect systems, and digital loop carriers.
The service node is responsible for signaling. This means determining when to setup, hold, charge, and release connections, and getting that information to the correct outlets that maintain and bill for each section of the network.
The real meat of the PSTN are the components of the switching node. In a PSTN setup there are four different types of switches.
- The Local Exchange has already been alluded to, and is the component of the network that physically connects subscribers (the CPE node) to the rest of the PSTN. This is where carriers terminate customer lines and keep the equipment that interconnects those lines. A single exchange traditionally had the capacity for 10,000 lines (0000 to 9999) and a local exchange consists of one or more of these exchanges.Imagine you’re heading out on a road trip but you don’t have a map handy. Now think of a phone call as the route to your destination, and the different components of the system as gas stations where you can stop and ask for directions.If you’re calling a neighbor across the street the call likely doesn’t need to leave the local exchange.Everyone in the U.S. should be familiar with seven digital phone numbers. The first three digits designate the local exchange and local switch where each number resides. So in the movies when someone starts a number with 555, that’s the local exchange designation. The last four digits identify the individual subscriber line within that exchange.Nowadays, with so many phone lines in operation, ten digit dialing, which includes the local area code, is oftentimes required as well. Prior to the introduction of all-number calling (ANC), which started to roll out in 1958 but wasn’t completed for several decades, phone numbers consisted of a combination of letters and numbers. The letters were derived from local exchange names. If you’ve ever wondered what The Marvelettes’ classic Motown song Beechwood 4-5789 refers to, there’s your answer.
- The Tandem Office (or junction network) primarily serves a metropolitan area with many local exchanges and handles the switching between them. A city like New York has multiple local exchanges. So if you live in Queens and want to call someone in Brooklyn your call will most likely be switched through a junction network.
- The Toll Office is the switch where national long-distance connections are made. For example, a call placed in Florida intended for a Washington number passes through the Toll Office switch.
- Finally, the International Gateway (or centre de transit [CT]) is what connects calls that originate domestically to international telephone systems. The International Telecommunications Union coordinates global communications standards that ensure compatibility between systems.
This is the structure of the PSTN, broadly speaking, in the United States. As mentioned above, other countries may configure their systems differently (like those using eight-digit phone numbers).
The ownership relationship between all of these nodes and transmission lines can be equally confusing. Different companies own different exchanges, and they may or may not also own the physical lines that link these pieces together.
Someone in New York trying to call San Francisco would go from their CPE, to the local exchange in New York on a trunk line, to the toll office on yet another trunk line, then back to a local exchange in San Francisco on a different trunk line, and finally to the CPE of their California contact along one more trunk line. In this situation, it’s possible for every trunk line and node to be owned by a different company.
Similarly, a call destined for an international number would again originate at the caller’s CPE, travel along a trunk line to their Local Exchange, and then be passed to the international gateway along another trunk line. Once the call is passed to the correct country’s PSTN, it then travels along a similar path in that country to reach the called party.
Therefore, if you have an automated voice solution and only callers from a specific area are unable to connect to your system, there’s a good chance that your technology is working just fine, but that there is an issue at the carrier level in that area.
The PSTN remains a critical and integral piece in the modern global communications network. As the system continues to see technological innovation and bandwidth increases its centrality to modern communications will only increase.
Publish Date: September 9, 2015 5:00 AM
In an era of digital communication and vast social media influence, it has become incredibly easy for consumers to voice their opinions about the companies they frequent, support, or vilify. One disgruntled customer can rally thousands in a matter of hours with nothing more than a 140-character blurb gone viral. Every individual has potential access to the digital megaphone of social media and thus, companies must put forth the utmost effort to maintain a high level of service and satisfaction for their customers.
Yet, this begs the question, how does a business go about ensuring its representatives meet corporate standards while fostering a positive experience for its client base? By going straight to the source – the customers. That’s where Interactive Voice Response (IVR) surveys become a major asset. Survey platforms such as Plum Insight afford enterprises a great deal of flexibility in collecting client feedback and ultimately, improving company performance through data-driven, customer-oriented decision making. With thorough planning and adherence to some basic tips, you’ll be on the right track to getting the most out of your IVR survey.
Conception and Preparation are Key
1. Know your objectives forwards and backwards
Formulating a concise set of objectives may sound like a simple task, but don’t underestimate its importance within the early stages of survey planning. Just as a house is only as sound as its foundation, a successful IVR survey depends on adherence to clear, well-defined objectives. Who will your survey target? What insight do you hope to discover with your questionnaire? These are the most basic examples of questions you should answer prior to the IVR polling stage. Be as specific as possible to gather targeted information from your customer base.
2. Start your analysis early
Now that you know what you want to ask, it’s time to think about what analysis is necessary and how you will use the information gleaned from the survey. The actual crunching of data doesn’t occur until after you’ve launched your survey, but outlining how the data will be used during the planning stage will save you plenty of headaches later. This is also the time to determine how to handle incomplete surveys, figuring out whether to weight specific questions, or any other tweaks that may affect your final results. Develop a system of analysis procedures early so that you can spend more time drawing conclusions from the data, not sifting through it.
3. Take a test drive
To borrow a phrase from those Head & Shoulders shampoo ads in the 1990s, “You never get a second chance to make a first impression.” This philosophy extends far beyond managing dandruff and is especially applicable to surveys. Before starting a survey campaign, test the waters with a pilot group that is reflective of your target demographic. A small focus group is the perfect medium to judge the effectiveness of your survey questions and remedy any problems before sending out the poll in mass.
4. Soft-launch to a sample group
As a general rule of thumb, when it comes to sample size, the more the merrier. In order to gather usable data that is representative of a larger target population, it is essential to have enough respondents. (That haunting echo you hear is probably the voice of your statistics professor of yore.) Luckily, there are a variety of resources available to help survey creators determine the optimal sample size for their particular needs.
5. Motivate survey takers with a personal touch
Users are more likely to provide feedback if your survey stands out from the crowd. Don’t beg for participation. Instead, tell your customers why you’re requesting their individual feedback. Mention a specific experience based on a recent interaction that each customer had with your company or brand. A bit of personalization within the invitation to the survey is invaluable as a mechanism to appeal to potential respondents.
Design Your IVR Survey Like a Pro
6. Get to the point
Surveys should be succinct, easy to understand, and most importantly very quick to complete. Don’t plan to take more than a minute or two of your customer’s time. A post call survey may sound exciting to you, but not all of your customers will be as enthusiastic. The more questions you include in your survey, the more skewed responses tend to get. Longer-than-expected surveys are not only frustrating for customers, but they almost entice users to quit the survey before finishing. Respect your customers’ time, tell them up front how long it will take and how many questions they will be asked to make the survey process as painless as possible.
7. The KISS Principle – Keep it simple, stupid
No, this has nothing to do with Gene Simmons or face paint. It’s tempting to jam pack a questionnaire with as many inquiries as possible. While you have their attention, you might as well try to gather insight about multiple areas of your business right? Wrong. Shorter, more frequent surveys provide much more accurate picture of customer satisfaction.
8. It’s all about timing
As any comedian can attest, timing is everything – the difference between a successful punchline and a room full of crickets. This is especially true when conducting a survey. When asking for feedback, it is crucial to do so within a reasonable amount of time – typically as soon as possible but no more than 24 hours after an encounter. Memory is a tricky thing. The longer you wait, the less likely your customer is to remember the specific interaction in question. And you don’t want that inaccurate data clogging up your analysis.
9. Ask, listen, then act – User feedback counts
It’s vital to let users know that their input is being heard. Make it clear to survey takers that their responses haven’t disappeared into the ethereal mist; that their opinions aren’t just sitting in a data bank somewhere. Use customer feedback to make positive changes within your organization and then flaunt it! A customer who sees improvements based upon their feedback will not only be more willing to complete questionnaires in the future, they’ll thank you for taking the time to listen. Win, win.
Make the Most of Your Data
10. The more you gather, the more you can measure
While the main goal of your business’s survey could be to analyze company performance or see which department protocol needs improvement, don’t forget about all of the other data that you’ve collected beyond the arena of public opinion. Cross-analyze customer feedback with internal metrics such as queue-time, agent-id, etc. You might be surprised at the additional trends you identify with seemingly disparate information.
11. Patience is a virtue
You’ve done your research, created, tested, and formalized your survey questionnaire, and now the data is rolling in. It’s exciting, but don’t get ahead of yourself. Wait until enough responses are accumulated before attempting to draw statistically significant conclusions. A provisional data analysis has its uses, potentially as a vehicle to generate a sense of customer opinion, but key business decisions should never be solely based on early figures.
12. Prepare for extremes
When beginning to delve into your survey data, it’s important to understand that the most vocal participants tend to be those who have had a very positive or very negative experience. This is called self-selection bias. In terms of representing a target population, these responses are typically outliers – extremes that cannot be correlated with the entire group because of their small proportion. Yet due to the severity, these polarized attitudes often draw more attention than the sentiments of your normal customer. Don’t let those who shout the loudest drown out the majority of your clientele!
13. Pictures are worth a thousand words
Data can be opaque and difficult to decipher. Yet, it’s through the analysis process that spreadsheets and mountains of numbers gain meaning. Use visual tools to bring clarity to that data. Charts, graphs, and other visual displays showcase your findings in easy, understandable ways. Plus, charts are a fantastic medium for quickly drawing comparisons with past and concurrent campaigns.
14. Share your results to inspire action
So you’ve determined your customers’ likes and dislikes and where your company excels and struggles. Now it’s on to the meeting room to disclose the results to the board of directors. But don’t stop there. Customers rarely, if ever, deal directly with your C-Level executives. Share the results with your entire company, all the way from the bottom to the top. Performance improvement starts with the actions of individual employees and large-scale policy changes can cement improvements in powerful, data-driven ways. Make company-wide changes to complement the findings of your survey and use subsequent polling to gauge satisfaction with the new practices and protocols.
Publish Date: September 1, 2015 5:00 AM
A recent New York Times article addressing the working culture at Amazon raised a lot of eyebrows around the country. The general view of major tech companies is one that includes free lunches, on-site gyms, and generous leave policies, like those at Google, Facebook, and Netflix. Perhaps this is why the negative picture painted by the New York Times, which claimed to peer behind the veil at Amazon’s culture, made so many waves.
Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, who rarely engages criticism of his company, quickly came to Amazon’s defense in a memo to his employees, stating, “The article doesn’t describe the Amazon I know or the caring Amazonians I work with every day.” Bezos added, “I strongly believe that anyone working in a company that really is like the one described in the NYT would be crazy to stay. I know I would leave such a company.”
Stepping back from the particulars here, one of the key takeaways from this exchange is that company culture and employee happiness are extremely important. A Forbes review of Dr. Noelle Nelson’s 2012 book, Make More Money by Making Your Employees Happy, cites a Jackson Organization study, referenced in that text, stating that “companies that effectively appreciate employee value enjoy a return on equity & assets more than triple that experienced by firms that don’t. When looking at Fortune’s ‘100 Best Companies to Work For’ stock prices rose an average of 14% per year from 1998-2005, compared to 6% for the overall market.”
There are plenty of studies, like Nelson’s, that discuss the importance of cultivating employee satisfaction. The thinking here is that happy employees produce happy customers.
Yet, the irony is that in recent years while many companies have ramped up their customer experience programs, they aren’t paying as much attention to employee experience. If the latter influences the former, shouldn’t it get some love too?
Fortunately, for companies that want to understand, measure, and analyze the relationship they have with their employees, technology solutions exist to make this process consistent and reliable. Conducting custom employee surveys is one option for this kind of data-gathering.
When building a program to discern the “voice of the employee” use the following series of questions to create a roadmap for determining just how happy your employees are.
- What goes into employee satisfaction?
- What about employee engagement?
- How can companies get a handle on these metrics, and what tools exist to measure and evaluate them?
You don’t want to go addressing concerns willy-nilly so having a system in place provides the best route for consistent, actionable results.
So what goes into employee satisfaction? The Society for Human Resource Management’s (SHRM) report on the subject for 2015 listed the top five factors affecting employee satisfaction, in the following order:
- respectful treatment of all employees at all levels
- trust between employees and senior management
- overall benefits
- overall compensation/pay
- job security
Seeing benefits and compensation near the top of the list isn’t surprising. Those have been at or near the top since SHRM began conducting this survey in 2002. However, the top two factors, those representing respect and trust, were new additions for the 2015 installment and instantly shot to the top of the list.
Financial factors are much more fixed than soft factors like respect and trust. Yet, considering how important these items are to employees and the amount of control companies have over shaping them, suggests that these may be good areas for companies to begin self-reflection and assessment.
Anyone who ever saw the old G. I. Joe cartoon understands that knowing is only half the battle. If employee satisfaction is one half, then employee engagement comprises the other half.
The importance of engaged employees shouldn’t be understated. In 2013, Gallup estimated that as much as 70% of the workforce was disengaged in the United States and that this disengagement cost companies $450–$550 billion annually in lost productivity.
SHRM also measured engagement and returned these as the leading factors for 2015 (Note: there was a three-way tie in the five slot):
- relationship with co-workers
- contribution of work to the organization’s business goals
- meaningfulness of the job
- opportunities to use skills/abilities
- relationship with immediate supervisor
- the work itself
- the organization’s financial stability
Keeping employees happy and engaged means that companies can spend less money on turnover, recruiting, and training, and put more of that money into supporting their current cast of employees. While recruiting and training may be necessary for growing companies, there’s little to recommend for employee churn that effectively makes the entrance to your HR department a revolving door.
Gauge and Evaluate Employee Happiness
SHRM already laid out the most important factors for employee satisfaction and engagement from an employee point-of-view. Basically, they’re handing you the first few bricks; it’s up to you to build the rest.
Knowing what issues are relevant to the majority of workers will help you to determine what questions are most relevant to your company and employees. Whether those revolve around salary, management transparency, or how meaningful an employee’s work is, asking your employees is the only way to really find out.
Surveys are great for that. Companies that already have a Voice of the Customer program (VoC) in place can use the same framework to also collect “Voice of the Employee” feedback.
Systematically asking employees about these things will provide a much needed baseline for evaluating your employees’ well-being. A well-designed survey can provide critical insights into the areas where your company performs well and where it struggles to meet your employees’ needs. Having an omni-channel tool with robust reporting and analysis capabilities ensures that you get the most out of the data you collect.
Thinking back to the statistic above about how happy employees affect company profitability, it’s worth taking the time to evaluate your employees’ happiness on the job. With the right tools collecting and analyzing that data is easy to do.
Publish Date: August 19, 2015 5:00 AM
No matter what business you’re in, it’s important to remember that customers don’t buy from companies, they buy from people. Your customer support team acts as a critical human face for your company; they are the people that your customers buy from, the team that troubleshoots their problems, and the ones who can make or break your sales funnel or retention efforts.
Your customers are also your best source for understanding the effectiveness of your customer service efforts. And creating positive customer experiences is critical to gaining and maintaining your customer base [pdf]. How can you get their feedback and improve upon their experiences if you don’t ask?
Providing an immediate, post-interaction survey for customers to provide feedback about their experience means you will have more time to analyze and respond to the data that is useful rather than scouring the web for data that may be useful.
Enter the interactive voice response (IVR) survey. A well-designed IVR survey can produce an abundance of data in a short period of time that can be analyzed efficiently. Here are four ways in which an IVR survey aids the process of improving customer experience.
- Show Customers You Care: No matter how frequently it’s used, offering a survey demonstrates that your company values customer feedback and is willing to listen to what they have to say. IVR surveys are a great way for a company to show its customers that it takes their opinions seriously by giving them a simple means of direct communication at the moment of impact.
- Respect Customers’ Time, and Yours: A well-designed IVR survey allows a company to quickly acquire input from customers. The sooner there is data to analyze the more rapidly a company can improve their processes and customer experience. The beauty of IVR surveys is that they combine the utility of qualitative data with the efficiency of quantitative reporting.
- Measure What Matters: An IVR survey can cater to any desired goals or areas of emphasis and easily adapt to measure what matters most as programs evolve. Surveys can also be integrated with other Voice of the Customer (VoC) or CRM databases. This allows the survey to dynamically incorporate information relevant to each customer and ask questions about their specific interaction or the products and services they use. Personalizing a survey in this way increases survey completion rates, and makes the data collected more relevant and useful.
- Meet Customers on their Turf: In our hyper-connected world there are many communication channels available to customers and businesses. IVR solutions designed for voice can also be pushed to an array of other media channels (SMS, social media, web, email).
For example, with an omni-channel communication platform like Plum Insight you can present a traditional IVR survey to someone after a call center interaction, and send a web version of the same survey to an online customer following a live chat interaction.
Embracing the voice of the customer in a direct way, like through Plum Insight, provides companies with a roadmap to understand its customers. This clarity then allows companies to better serve their customers and, in turn, cultivate brand loyalty. Don’t let your customers’ voices go unheard. Contact Plum Voice to learn how Plum Insight will benefit your customers and your company.
Publish Date: August 11, 2015 5:00 AM